EHA Library - The official digital education library of European Hematology Association (EHA)

Abstract
Presentation during EHA2022: All (e)Poster presentations will be made available as of Friday, June 10, 2022 (09:00 CEST) and will be accessible for on-demand viewing until Monday, August 15, 2022 on the Congress platform.

Abstract: P606

Type: Poster presentation

Session title: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders - Biology & Translational Research

Background
Introduction of the orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, a drug approved for relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma in late 2013 and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 2014, has changed treatment algoritms for B-cell malignancies and improved progression-free survival. Ibrutinib irreversibly targets Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), thus interrupting B-cell receptor signaling. However, it is known that mutations in the BTK gene, located on the X chromosome, can mediate acquired resistance, specifically modifying cysteine residue 481 to serine (C481S, X:101356176, GRCh38).

Aims
Despite this knowledge, it is still unknown how low mutational burden can contribute to general resistance towards ibrutinib treatment. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis based on previous cardinal studies to investigate the collective and gender-specific distribution of variant allele frequencies.

Methods
We implemented meta-analysis of single-nucleotide variant calls from seven studies involving whole-exome sequencing (Woyach et al. 2014 and 2017, Maddocks et al. 2015, Ahn et al. 2017, Kanagal-Shamanna et al. 2019, Gángó et al. 2020, Bödör et al. 2021) on mutational profiling concerning ibrutinib resistance and CLL. Four of these studies contained gender specific data. Computational analyses, statistics, and visualization were performed in Wolfram Language, R, and GraphPad Prism.

Results
From the available data included in these studies, we were able to base our analyses on 226 non-BTK mutations and 170 BTK mutations within a variant allele frequency (VAF) range of 0.0001–0.9, of which 93 mutation candidates from males (VAF < 0.9) and 77 from females (VAF < 0.44) were observed. Extrapolative analysis of allele frequency distribution from all other variants (excl. BTK) in the studies revealed an exponential increase in the number of low burden variants below 10% VAF (R2>0.99). These variants were not significantly different between genders (PMann-Whitney=0.24, nmale=130, nfemale=73). In contrast, a significant difference was observed between male variant allele frequencies (PMann-Whitney=0.005) and females owing to BTK hemizygosity in males. However, this significance persisted when female BTK mutations were transformed to reflect a single copy (VAF/2, PMann-Whitney=0.015, ΔVAF=0.05) for gender comparison and even when observations for males were alternatively transformed to reflect two copies (2*VAF, PMann-Whitney<0.001, ΔVAF=0.19). The previously discovered threshold of 10% was set as the detection limit.

Conclusion
Defining specific molecular contributions in drug resistance is imperative for the correct use of targeted therapy. It has been questioned how the low allelic burden of BTK mutations plays a role. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the lower limit of detection. The meta-analysis suggests that variants below a certain threshold, here empirically 10%, may in many cases be false-positive variants, in agreement with other reports involving WES in general, introduced by erroneous base calling, PCR errors, etc. Although intriguing, it remains to elaborate whether the haploinsufficiency of BTK in males skew in the degree of ibrutinib resistance.

Keyword(s): Ibrutinib, Leukemia, Resistance, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Presentation during EHA2022: All (e)Poster presentations will be made available as of Friday, June 10, 2022 (09:00 CEST) and will be accessible for on-demand viewing until Monday, August 15, 2022 on the Congress platform.

Abstract: P606

Type: Poster presentation

Session title: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders - Biology & Translational Research

Background
Introduction of the orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, a drug approved for relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma in late 2013 and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 2014, has changed treatment algoritms for B-cell malignancies and improved progression-free survival. Ibrutinib irreversibly targets Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), thus interrupting B-cell receptor signaling. However, it is known that mutations in the BTK gene, located on the X chromosome, can mediate acquired resistance, specifically modifying cysteine residue 481 to serine (C481S, X:101356176, GRCh38).

Aims
Despite this knowledge, it is still unknown how low mutational burden can contribute to general resistance towards ibrutinib treatment. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis based on previous cardinal studies to investigate the collective and gender-specific distribution of variant allele frequencies.

Methods
We implemented meta-analysis of single-nucleotide variant calls from seven studies involving whole-exome sequencing (Woyach et al. 2014 and 2017, Maddocks et al. 2015, Ahn et al. 2017, Kanagal-Shamanna et al. 2019, Gángó et al. 2020, Bödör et al. 2021) on mutational profiling concerning ibrutinib resistance and CLL. Four of these studies contained gender specific data. Computational analyses, statistics, and visualization were performed in Wolfram Language, R, and GraphPad Prism.

Results
From the available data included in these studies, we were able to base our analyses on 226 non-BTK mutations and 170 BTK mutations within a variant allele frequency (VAF) range of 0.0001–0.9, of which 93 mutation candidates from males (VAF < 0.9) and 77 from females (VAF < 0.44) were observed. Extrapolative analysis of allele frequency distribution from all other variants (excl. BTK) in the studies revealed an exponential increase in the number of low burden variants below 10% VAF (R2>0.99). These variants were not significantly different between genders (PMann-Whitney=0.24, nmale=130, nfemale=73). In contrast, a significant difference was observed between male variant allele frequencies (PMann-Whitney=0.005) and females owing to BTK hemizygosity in males. However, this significance persisted when female BTK mutations were transformed to reflect a single copy (VAF/2, PMann-Whitney=0.015, ΔVAF=0.05) for gender comparison and even when observations for males were alternatively transformed to reflect two copies (2*VAF, PMann-Whitney<0.001, ΔVAF=0.19). The previously discovered threshold of 10% was set as the detection limit.

Conclusion
Defining specific molecular contributions in drug resistance is imperative for the correct use of targeted therapy. It has been questioned how the low allelic burden of BTK mutations plays a role. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the lower limit of detection. The meta-analysis suggests that variants below a certain threshold, here empirically 10%, may in many cases be false-positive variants, in agreement with other reports involving WES in general, introduced by erroneous base calling, PCR errors, etc. Although intriguing, it remains to elaborate whether the haploinsufficiency of BTK in males skew in the degree of ibrutinib resistance.

Keyword(s): Ibrutinib, Leukemia, Resistance, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

By clicking “Accept Terms & all Cookies” or by continuing to browse, you agree to the storing of third-party cookies on your device to enhance your user experience and agree to the user terms and conditions of this learning management system (LMS).

Cookie Settings
Accept Terms & all Cookies