CARBENOXOLONE REVERSES MICROENVIRONMENT-INDUCED CHEMORESISTANCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA
Author(s): ,
Farah Kouzi
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Kazem Zibara
Affiliations:
PRASE, DSST,Lebanese university,Beirut,Lebanon
,
Frederic Picou
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Jerome Bourgeais
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Nathalie Gallay
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Hassan Dakik
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Benjamin Roux
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Sophie Hamard
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Louis-Romée Le Nail
Affiliations:
Department of Surgical Orthopedia,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France
,
Rita Hleihel
Affiliations:
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiological Sciences,American University of Beirut,Beirut,Lebanon;Department of Internal Medicine,American University of Beirut,Beirut,Lebanon
,
Amelie Foucault
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Noemie Ravalet
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Florence Rouleux-Bonnin
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Fabrice Gouilleux
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Frederic Mazurier
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Emmanuel Gyan
Affiliations:
Department of Hematology & Cell Therapy,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
,
Jorge Domenech
Affiliations:
CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France;Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France
,
Marwan El-Sabban
Affiliations:
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiological Sciences,American University of Beirut,Beirut,Lebanon
Olivier Herault
Affiliations:
Department of Biological Hematology,Tours University Hospital,Tours,France;CNRS ERL 7001 LNOX,Tours University,Tours,France
EHA Library. KOUZI F. Jun 14, 2019; 265990; PF200
Farah KOUZI
Farah KOUZI
Contributions
Abstract

Abstract: PF200

Type: Poster Pitch

Presentation during EHA24: On Friday, June 14, 2019 from 17:30 - 19:00

Location: Poster area

Background
Bone marrow niche of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) regulates leukemic progression by favoring leukemic cell quiescence and chemoresistance. Niche components, especially mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) protect leukemic cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Direct intercellular communications between hematopoietic stem cells and MSCs involve connexins, key components of gap junctions, which could be interresting targets to reverse this phenomenom.

Aims
We postulated that blocking the assembly of connexins could modify cell-cell interactions in the leukemic niche and consequently reverse the chemoresistance. We evaluated the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative known to block gap junctions.

Methods
Primary bone marrow (BM) AML blasts, 8 AML cell lines and primary BM CD34+ cells were exposed to CBX to assess cell viability and proliferation (MTT assay). The combined drug effects of CBX and cytarabine (Ara-C) were studied by isobolograms. The metabolic effects of CBX on AML cells were investigated with Seahorse® analyzer and high-throughput metabolic profiling by OmniLog® technology. Direct cell-cell interactions were studied in a co-culture system of AML cells and primary BM MSCs (48h, 37°C, 5% CO2)exposed or not to CBX (150 µM) and Ara-C (1 µM). BM MSC-adherent AML cells were collected and the two populations were discriminated by flow cytometry studies to analyses the cell cycle (Ki67/7AAD assay) and to quantify apoptosis/necrosis (annexinV/7AAD assay). Gap junction inhibition by CBX was checked by calcein transfer from labeled MSCs to AML cells. CBX in vivo effects were evaluated in NSG mice transplanted with the human OCI-AML-3 cells and treated or not with Ara-C. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test.

Results

CBX reduced cell growth and viability of AML cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner (IC50≈150 µM). The exposure to CBX (48h, 150 µM) of primary AML blast induced a 2-fold decrease in the number of viable cells. CBX did not have any deleterious effect on normal BM-CD34+ cells. Interestingly, the isobolograms of the 8 AML cells lines identified 3 different profiles of resistance to Ara-C and a synergistic effect between CBX and Ara-C. Regarding the energy metabolism, CBX induced a major decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis of leukemic cells regardless their chemoresistance level to Ara-C. In the co-culture experiments, contact with MSCs promoted quiescence and resistance to Ara-C of leukemic cells (4- and 6-fold decrease in apoptosis/necrosis rate of KG1a cells and primary blasts) and co-treatment of leukemic cells with CBX reduced this quiescence and reversed the MSC-induced chemoresistance (5- and 2-fold increased in apoptosis/necrosis rate of KG1a cells and primary blasts). CBX induced a 48%>decrease in calcein transfer between leukemic cells and MSCs, highlighting its role as gap junction inhibitor. Finally, in vivo survival analyses showed that untreated mice died after 32-33 days, while CBX treatment and even more CBX and Cyt infusions significantly improved mice survival (up to 85 days). Moreover, CBX-treated mice showed a limited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and leukemic infiltration in the liver.

Conclusion

Niche-induced chemoresistance is associated with AML relapse after initial well-conducted chemotherapy. Combined to chemotherapy, CBX, a drug already clinically evaluated in the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer, could be of interest to reduce the deleterious effects of leukemic niche by targeting gap junctions.

Session topic: 3. Acute myeloid leukemia - Biology & Translational Research

Keyword(s): Acute myeloid leukemia, Chemoresistance, Microenvironment, Treatment

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